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Hard Drive Failure Terms

AUTOEXEC.BAT
AUTOEXEC.BAT is a system batch file used on a Microsoft operating system. This batch file is located in the root directory of the boot device. It controls the  "execution" of the commands needed to start up the computer system startup.
Boot Sector Failure
A boot sector is a sector located on a hard disk or other storage media that contains computer code for booting programs.
Black Screen
A Windows error that causes the computer to lock up, and the screen turns black. Often a blinking cursor is observed.
Blue Screen
A crash in Windows that causes the computer to lock up, and the screen turns entirely blue.
Byte
Binary is the common unit of computer storage from desktop computer to mainframe. A byte holds the equivalent of a single character, such as the letter A. For numbers, a byte can hold a single decimal digit (0 to 9).
CD/R (CD-Recordable)
A writable CD technology using a type of compact disc that can be recorded only once. CD-R discs are used to master CD-ROMs, to back up data and to make copies of data for distribution. "Burning" a CD-R requires a CD-RW drive.
CD/ RW (CD -Read Write)
A writable CD technology using a type of compact disc that can be recorded on multiple times. CD-RW discs are used to master CD-ROMs, to back up data and to make copies of data for distribution. "Burning" a CD-RW requires a CD-RW drive.
Computer Crash
A computer crash in results from a application failure, an operating system failure, or a logical hard drive failure. The result is the crashed computer stops performing or freezes up. Virus attack is also responsible for type of computer failure.
Data Conversion
Data Conversion is the changing of data from one form into another. For example, converting InstaMail into Outlook Express or vice versa. Or conversion of Word Perfect into Microsoft Word.
Data Corruption
Altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware, software failure or power failure.
Data Destruction
Data Destruction is the process that RESTORE MY DATA performs to guarantee confidential, business or personal data is destroyed permanently! The destroyed media is made “unrecoverable”.
Data Recovery
Restoring data from disks, tapes, CD’s, DVD’s and digital photo memory cards that have been damaged by accidents, natural disasters, power surges or malfunctioning electronics. Laptop/Notebook hard disks are especially vulnerable.
Disk
A direct access storage device such as floppy disk, hard disk, hard drive, magnetic disk, optical disk, CD-ROM, CD/R, CD/RW, DVD, DVD/RW, Zip, or Jazz.
Disk Copy
The process where copying one hard drive identically onto another hard drive of comparable size is performed. This disk copy can be done via hardware or software. Hardware disk copy is more reliable, stable and faster. Restoremydata recommends and utilizes hardware copy techniques due to advantages in speed and efficiency. The term disk copy is often associated with the term cloning or disk imaging.
DVD(Digital Video Disc)
An optical digital disc for storing movies and data. The disc uses the same diameter platter as a CD, but holds 4.7GB rather than 700MB. CDs use only one side,DVDs can be recorded on both sides as well as in dual layers.
Floppy Disk
A flexible circle of magnetic material similar to magnetic tape, except that both sides are used. Also referred to as a "diskette". The read/write head contacts the surface through an opening in the plastic shell or envelope.
Forensics
The study and analysis of investigation of a computer system believed to be involved in cyber crime.
Forensic Recovery
A recovery where an audit trail of the investigative process is performed on a computer system believed to be involved in cyber crime. Forensic recoveries utilize investigative tools that copy hard drive/s to another system for inspection. The original media is never changed. Hidden or disguised files having phony file names to hide data or contents are analyzed and recovered.
Format
File formats are the structure of program and data files. Each has its own headers, codes and rules for laying out the content. There are many different file structures for each kind of file, including executable programs, word processing documents, graphics files and databases.
Hard Drive
The primary storage device in a computer, notebook, laptop, server, mainframes, workstation, or NAS, which spins, reads and writes one or more fixed disk platters. The terms hard drive and hard disk are used interchangeably.
Hard Drive Clicking
Hard drive Clicking noises generally result from bad heads. This happens since the heads are unable to calibrate with the servo tracks on the hard disks. As a result, the hard drive keeps resetting. If you hear hard drive clicking noise, shut your computer down immediately and do not restart it. Continuous restarts only destroys data and just makes the data recovery more expensive and less likely to recovery lost data.
Hard Drive Grinding
This Hard drive noise generally results from bad heads digging into the platters. Data recovery from this type of event often requires clean room technology and the ability to repair and replace hard drive components. If you hear hard drive noise, shut your computer down immediately and do not restart it. Restarts will destroy more data and reduce the chances of a successful data recovery.
Hard Drive Noise
Hard drives typically make sounds. Late model hard drives especially lap top hard drives run almost silently. More and more hard drives seem to run producing almost inaudible sounds. If you hear a hard drive noise, this typically means you are getting a warning that your hard drive is going bad. If you notice unusual hard drive noises, shut your pc down immediately and do not restart it. This is the best opportunity to recover your data. Your hard drive is giving you a hard drive failure warning.
Head Crash
The physical destruction of a hard disk. Misalignment or contamination with dust can cause the read/write head to collide with the disk's recording surface. The data are destroyed, and both the disk platter and head have to be replaced.
iPod Recovery
An iPod is a portable digital audio player marketed by Apple Computer. Ipods use hard drives just as computers do. iPod hard drive failures typically result from being dropped onto hard surfaces or into water.
Laptop
A lightweight portable computer that has a flat LCD screen. I t uses batteries for mobile use and AC power for charging the batteries and desktop use. Often referred to as notebook.
Laptop Data Recovery Notebook Recover
Laptop Data Recovery / Notebook Recovery can consist of a logical or physical failure that needs some type of repair. Physical repairs often occur due to dropping a laptop against a hard surface or from water or fire damage. A logical recovery is a result of some file corruption or the beginning of hard drive physical failures.
Linux
Most popular open source operating system in use. Its source code is free. Linux is distributed with technical support and training for a fee from Red Hat Software and SUSE Inc. The distribution of their CD-ROM’s include the complete source code, tools, applets and utilities.
Logical Errors
Errors in computer security, being able to interact with data through access control procedures such as identification, authentication and authorization.
Mac - Macintosh
A family of desktop and laptop computers from Apple. It was the first computer to popularize the graphical user interface (GUI). Mac’s are heavily used in the graphics or publication industry.
Master Boot Record Failure - MBR
The Master Boot Record is located on the hard disk that your computer uses to boot up. The Master Boot Record gets the boot instructions from the boot sector. The size of your hard drive, the partition structure, and which partition is flagged as active, is all stored in the boot sector. The MBR failure means the partition that the information resides is corrupted or destroyed.
Microsoft
Founded Windows operating systems. Microsoft Office Suite is the most widely used application for spreadsheets, Excel, database, Access, Word, PowerPoint, Publisher in commercial history.
Missing Operating System Operating System Not Found
"Operating System Not Found" or "Missing operating system" error message occur when you start your Windows computer up. This computer failure can be due to a crashed hard drive, a bad connection to motherboard or a virus attack. Other possibilities include: The basic input/output system (BIOS) is not detecting the hard disk. The physical hard disk has a corrupted Master Boot Record (MBR).
NAS (Network Attached Storage)
A specialized file server that connects to a network. It enables additional storage to be quickly added by plugging it into a network via a hub or switch.
Notebook
A lightweight portable computer that has a flat LCD screen. It uses batteries for mobile use and AC power for charging the batteries and desktop use. Often referred to as laptop.
NTLDR Missing
Error found when computer boots from a non-bootable source. This mostly happens when the hard disk drive is not properly setup in BIOS. A corrupt NTDETECT.COM file or damaged NTLDR will stop a system from booting up. Corrupt boot sectors or a corrupted master boot record (MBR) will also result in a NTLDR Missing error.
Operating System
The main program that runs many computers or PC’s. The operating system sets the standards for all application programs that run in the computer. Applications communicate with the operating system for all user interface and file management operations.
Notebook
A lightweight portable computer that has a flat LCD screen. It uses batteries for mobile use and AC power for charging the batteries and desktop use. Often referred to as laptop.
Password Protection
A secret word or code used to serve as a security measure against unauthorized access to data on a server, network, PC, workstation or file. It is normally managed by the operating system. The computer can only verify the legitimacy of the password and generally does not verify the legitimacy of the user.
PC Personal Computer
Typically refers to the user's desktop or laptop computer. Also called a "client" machine. Servers are not referred to as PC’s
Physical Errors
Physical Damage to media such as hard drive, hard disk, floppy, optical disk, compact flash, smart media, multimedia MMC, CD’s, CD/RW’s, DVD’s, DVD/RW’s or magnetic tapes that prevents media from being read or accessed.
Picture Card
The creation and manipulation of picture images on a media card such as Compact Flash, Smart Media Or Multimedia MMC.
RAID Data Recovery (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
RAID Data Recovery is performed in a disk subsystem that is used to increase performance or provide fault tolerance or both. RAID requires two or more hard disks and a RAID disk controller. There is Raid 0, Raid 1, Raid 2, Raid 3, Raid 4, Raid 5, Raid 6, and Raid 10. The most commonly commercially utilized Raid is shown below.
RAID 0 Data Recovery Advantage is Speed
A Data Recovery for RAID 0. RAID Level 0 is disk striping only, which interleaves data across multiple disks for better performance. It does not provide safeguards against failure. RAID 0 is widely used in for advantage in speed.
RAID 1 Data Recovery Fault Tolerance
Data Recovery on RAID 1 is rarely performed on a server resulting from hard drive failure. RAID 1 Uses disk mirroring (Mirrored Sets), which duplicates the entire data from Drive 0 onto Drive 1. RAID 1 is extremely reliable but is vulnerable to virus attack. RAID 1 is widely used in business applications.
RAID 5 Data Recovery Speed and Fault Tolerance
A Data Recovery for RAID 5. In RAID 5 Data are striped across three or more drives for performance, and parity bits are used for fault tolerance. The parity bits from two drives are stored on a third drive and are interspersed with user data. RAID 5 is widely used on servers to provide speed and fault tolerance.
RAID 10 Data Recovery Fault Tolerance then Speed
A Data Recovery for A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0. RAID 1 is used for performance. Meaning reliability is the more important attribute. If one of the RAID 1 drives fail, then the second RAID 1 drive will continue to work. The RAID 0 is used for quick read/ write speeds to the RAID array. Therefore, if the RAID 1 array fails, then the RAID 0 still holds the desired data or operating system.
RAID 01 Data Recovery Speed First then Fault Tolerance
A Data Recovery for A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1. The RAID 0 is the first RAID array that allows fast access to the RAID array. The second RAID array, RAID 1 is used for reliability as the RAID drives are mirrored. This redundancy allows for the desired fault tolerance.
RAID 4 Data Recovery
A Data Recovery for RAID 4. RAID 4 improves performance by striping data across many disks in blocks, instead of bytes for striping. This provides a viable fault tolerance through a dedicated parity disk
SAN Data Recovery(Storage Area Network)
A Data Recovery for A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0. Raid 0 is used for performance and RAID 1 is used for fault tolerance.
Scraping Noise 
A scraping sound coming from your hard drive is a sign of hard drive failure. Scraping results from your hard drive heads scraping against the disks surface. The disk is the location where your data is being stored. The longer the computer runs, the more the scrapping occurs, the more the data lose. Data recovery becomes more difficult if the user persists in trying to access data from a failing hard drive. We recommend you shut your computer down immediately when you hear a scraping or grinding sound.
Sector
The smallest unit of storage to read or write on a hard disk or hard drive.
Server
A computer system connected to a network that is shared by multiple users.
spyware
Software that sends information about your surfing habits to its Web site. Spyware then transmits information in the background as you move around the Web. Spyware typically gets installed on your computer when the user selects a free download or software utility.
Storage Media
Materials that hold data in any form or that allow data to pass through them such as a Hard Drive, Hard Disk, Floppy, Optical Disk, Compact Flash, Smart Media, Multimedia MMC, CD’s, CD/RW’s, DVD’s, DVD/RW’s, Zip Disk, Jazz Disk Or Magnetic Tape.
Storage Media Failure
A condition of not being able to read from or write to a storage device, such as a Hard Drive, Hard Disk, Floppy, Optical Disk, Compact Flash, Smart Media, Multimedia MMC, CD’s, CD/RW’s, DVD’s, DVD/RW’s, Magnetic Tape, Zip Disk or Jazz Disk due to a defect in the recording surface.
Tape System
Physical unit that holds the reads and writes onto a magnetic tape Track. This is the most widely used form of data backup as it is one of the most reliable forms of data backup, if properly managed.
Track 
The storage channel on a disk or tape. On magnetic disks (hard, floppy, Zip, Jazz, etc.), tracks are concentric circles. CD, CD/RW and DVD DVD/RW tracks have one continuous, spiral-shaped channel starting near the center and moving outward. Magnetic tapes uses tracks that run parallel to the length of the tape.
Trojan
A program that appears legitimate but performs some illicit activity. It can locate password information or make a PC or network system vulnerable to future attack. A Trojan can destroy programs or data on the hard disk / hard drive. Often Trojan’s open ports for the attacker to gain access to the PC or network. This security breach can often be avoided by using the proper software and hardware firewall applications. In fact, many of the free popup programs can also sneak in a Trojan.
Unix
Created by Novell, Unix is a multi-user, multitasking operating system that is supported on networks and controls program in workstations and servers.
Unlock Password
A secret word or code used to serve as a security measure against unauthorized access to data on a server, network, PC, workstation or file. It is normally managed by the operating system. The computer can only verify the legitimacy of the password and generally does not verify the legitimacy of the user.
Virus Recovery
Software used to infect a computer. Virus code is written and runs within an existing program. Once that program is executed, the virus code is activated and attaches itself to other programs in the system. Many viruses are spread via e-mail, file sharing or by connectivity via the network. In several cases, viruses destroy RAID servers or network data. This typically requires some type of data recovery service to recover the lost data.
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